Author: Lu, X.
Paper Title Page
Precision Electrochemical Fabrication of Corrugated Waveguides  
  • D.X. Liu, H.M. Garich, T.D. Hall, M.E. Inman, S.T. Snyder, E.J. Taylor
    Faraday Technology, Inc., Clayton, Ohio, USA
  • X. Lu
    Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA
  • X. Lu, J.G. Power, D.S. Scott, J. Shao
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided financial support for this work under the contract award number: DE-SC0020782.
Advancements in high energy physics require continuous innovations in hardware to support the generation, amplification, transmission, modulation, and detection of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic waves. Waveguides have garnered increasing interest due to their integral function in the transmission, amplification, and/or manipulation of electromagnetic waves. Waveguides operating in higher than conventional frequency ranges, e.g., 30 to 300 GHz, are of particular interest given the scaling of gradient and shunt impedance with frequency. These higher frequencies necessitate features, such as corrugations, with significantly smaller dimensions. However, traditional manufacturing approaches are inadequate, in terms of manufacturing precision and cost, to meet these requirements - thus, novel fabrication strategies are required. Herein, an economic fabrication approach for electroforming high-purity 26 GHz cylindrical copper waveguides with internal corrugations is presented. A custom, low-additive electrolyte was employed to mitigate impurity inclusion within the copper electroform, ensuring high-purity copper waveguides. Pulse-modulated waveforms employed during copper electrodeposition selectively controlled ionic transport as well as the subsequent deposit morphology and thus facilitate complete copper filling of the corrugations. Scale-up from ~2- to ~6-inch waveguides were demonstrated and confirm the versatility of the pulse-modulated electroforming strategy. A cold test of the ~2-inch copper waveguide using a vector network analyzer (VNA) was conducted. The results of the S-parameter measurements and the bead-pull test indicate reasonable agreement with the design by CST simulation, which validates the novel pulse-modulated electroforming approach.
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