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MOOA02 Experience with the Vacuum System for the First Fourth Generation Light Source: MAX IV vacuum, storage-ring, electron, synchrotron 10
  • E. Al-Dmour, M.J. Grabski, K. Åhnberg
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  The 3 GeV electron storage ring of the MAX IV laboratory is the first storage-ring-based synchrotron radiation facility with small aperture and with the inner surface of almost all the vacuum chambers along its circumference coated with non-evaporable getter (NEG) thin film. This concept implies challenges during the whole project phase from design into operation. The fast conditioning of the vacuum system and over five years of reliable accelerator operation have demonstrated that the chosen design proved to be good and does not impose limits on the operation. A summary of the vacuum system design, production, installation and performance is presented.  
slides icon Slides MOOA02 [3.706 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 29 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 30 August 2021       issue date ※ 30 October 2021  
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MOPB03 Commissioning and Prospects of the High-Dynamic DCMs at Sirius/LNLS undulator, controls, MMI, hardware 25
  • R.R. Geraldes, J.L. Brito Neto, R.M. Caliari, M.A.S. Eleoterio, S.A.L. Luiz, M.A.L. Moraes, A.V. Perna, M.S. Silva, G.S. de Albuquerque
    LNLS, Campinas, Brazil
  Funding: Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI)
The High-Dynamic Double-Crystal Monochromator (HD-DCM)*,** is an opto-mechatronic system with unique architecture, and deep paradigm changes as compared to traditional beamline monochromators. Aiming at unmatching scanning possibilities and positioning stability in vertical-bounce DCMs, it has been developed since 2015 for hard X-ray beamlines at Sirius Light Source at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Two units are currently operational at the MANACA (macromolecular crystallography) and the EMA (extreme conditions) undulator beamlines, whereas a model for extended scanning capabilities in the energy range between 3.1 to 43 keV, the so-called HD-DCM-Lite, is in advanced development stage for two new beamlines, namely: QUATI (quick absorption spectroscopy), with a bending-magnet source; and SAPUCAIA (small-angle scattering), with an undulator source. In this work, online commissioning and operating results of the HD-DCMs are presented with emphasis on: the 10 nrad RMS (1 Hz - 2.5 kHz) pitch-parallelism performance; energy calibration; energy-dependent beam motion at sample; and flyscan with monochromator-undulator synchronization, which is a well-known control challenge at beamlines. To conclude, the Sirius HD-DCM family prospects, including the HD-DCM-Lite, are discussed.
*Geraldes, R. R., et al. "The New High-dynamics DCM for Sirius." Proc. of MEDSI 2016.
**Geraldes, R. R., et al. "The Status of the New High-Dynamic DCM for Sirius." Proc. of MEDSI 2018.
poster icon Poster MOPB03 [1.829 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 25 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 01 October 2021       issue date ※ 02 November 2021  
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MOPB11 The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APSU) Straight Section Vacuum Systems First Article Fabrication vacuum, photon, undulator, site 47
  • M.E. Szubert, E.A. Anliker, G.C. Avellar, J.E. Lerch
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Control DE-AC02-06CH11357.
The Advanced Photon Source Upgrade (APSU) includes 40 straight sections, 35 of which will be outfitted with Superconducting Undulators (SCUs) or Hybrid-Permanent Magnetic Undulators (HPMUs). The vacuum systems for these devices are primarily fabricated from aluminum extrusions and are required to provide Ultra-High Vacuum continuity between storage ring (SR) sec-tors for a nominal distance of ~5.4 meters. Each vacuum system has unique fabrication challenges, but all first article (FA) components have been produced successfully. The FAs arrived onsite at ANL installation-ready, but have undergone functional testing activities to verify the production and vacuum certifications. The Insertion Device Vacuum Chamber (IDVC), used in HPMU sec-tors, is produced by SAES Rial Vacuum (Parma, Italy). The SCU vacuum system components are produced by two vendors, Cinel Instruments (Venice, Italy) and Anderson Dahlen (Ramsey, MN, USA). Based on the reliable outcomes and lessons learned from the FAs, production of the straight section vacuum systems is underway.
poster icon Poster MOPB11 [2.357 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 27 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 05 October 2021       issue date ※ 27 October 2021  
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MOPB13 Automated Mechanical Inspection and Calibration of Insertion Devices in APS Storage Ring insertion-device, insertion, feedback, storage-ring 50
  • N.R. Weir, E. Gubbels
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  Funding: Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
A novel technique has been developed to automatically inspect and calibrate the 53 permanent magnet insertion devices in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. This technique employs standard frequency domain analysis to create easily identifiable signatures in an actionable format. We will discuss the mechanisms and actions taken behind various observed trends and its application for continuous monitoring and predictive maintenance of these devices. This technique has enabled predictive maintenance and provided new insights into optimizing device performance.
poster icon Poster MOPB13 [1.783 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 26 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 01 October 2021       issue date ※ 30 October 2021  
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TUPA16 Design and Development of the Advanced Diffraction and Scattering Beamlines at the Australian Synchrotron detector, synchrotron, experiment, alignment 150
  • B.J. McMahon, J.E. Auckett, M. Fenwick, R.B. Hogan, J.A. Kimpton, R. Lippi, S. Porsa
    AS - ANSTO, Clayton, Australia
  The ADS beamlines are the fifth and sixth beamlines being built within the Australian Synchrotron/ANSTO BRIGHT program The two beamlines (ADS-1 and ADS-2) will operate independently with the beam generated by a powerful super-conducting multipole wiggler (SCMPW). ADS-1 will have tunable collimating optics that will combine with a fixed exit double crystal Laue monochromator (DCLM) to provide white, pink and monochromatic beam (50-150 keV) to a large end-station located outside the main synchrotron building. ADS-1 will accommodate experiments using a variety of sample stages capable of positioning large and heavy samples (up to 300 kg). The second ADS beamline, ADS-2, will take a deflected beam from the main beam using a side-bounce monochromator (SBM) that produces three monochromatic energies from 45 keV - 90 keV. The SCMPW source for the beamline produces a beam of 45 kW at 4.5 T. The major optics of the beamline include a cryogenic SBM and a cryogenic DCLM, a transfocator and multilayer VFM. The high heat load on the front end and upstream monochromator represented key challenges for the beamline design. Innovative approaches to thermal management have been developed. The high radiation environment required additional safety protocols to be implemented for beamline operation. The primary beamline endstation utilises a large gantry robot to independently position up to 4 detectors in an envelope of up to 8x3x0.3 m with a positional repeatability of ± 0.01 mm. The large motion envelope gives users access to large Q-range and allows flexibility for users to utilise large bespoke sample environments. The ADS beamlines project encompasses design, procurement, build/installation and commissioning phases. The beamline will commence user operations in July 2023.  
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About • paper received ※ 29 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 15 October 2021       issue date ※ 08 November 2021  
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TUPB05 Investigation of Thermal Instabilities in the ALBA Cooling System, Based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Measurements simulation, experiment, synchrotron, background 153
  • F. Hernández
    ESEIAAT, Terrassa, Spain
  • E. Ayas, J.J. Casas, C. Colldelram, Ll. Fuentes, J. Iglesias, M. Quispe
    ALBA-CELLS Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
  This paper presents an investigation into the thermal instability problems that currently affect the ALBA Cooling System. During these periods of instabilities, which occur for a few hours every week of operation, there are deviations up to +1.5 °C, concerning the nominal temperature of 23 ± 0.2 °C in the four rings of ALBA: Service Area, Booster, Storage and Experimental Hall. This problem has a direct impact on the quality of the beam of the Accelerator. Previous studies have preliminarily concluded that the causes of this problem are due to (1) thermohydraulic anomalies in the operation of the external cogeneration plant, which supplies cold water to ALBA, and (2) cavitation problems in the pumping system (the water mass flow has been reduced to 67% of its nominal value to temporarily mitigate the cavitation). In order to confirm these hypotheses and propose solutions to the problem, an investigation has been developed making use of one-dimensional thermohydraulic simulations, performing Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) studies, statistical evaluations of data taken from our control system, and systematic flow measurements in critical areas, with ultrasonic flowmeters. As a result of this research, a set of solutions and recommendations are finally proposed to solve this problem.  
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DOI • reference for this paper ※  
About • paper received ※ 22 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 05 November 2021       issue date ※ 09 November 2021  
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TUPB06 Design of Miniature Waveguides and Diamond Window Assembly for RF Extraction and Vacuum Isolation for the CWA GUI, vacuum, Windows, resonance 156
  • B.K. Popovic, S.H. Lee, S. Sorsher, K.J. Suthar, E. Trakhtenberg, G.J. Waldschmidt, A. Zholents
    ANL, Lemont, Illinois, USA
  • A.E. Siy
    UW-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
  Funding: This manuscript is based upon work supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding from Argonne National Laboratory
This paper outlines the design of a diamond vacuum window and a millimeter wavelength (mmWave) waveguide assembly that will hold vacuum but still allow the mmWaves to propagate out of the structure for diagnosis and thermal management purposes. Currently under development at Argonne is a corrugated wakefield accelerator (CWA) that will operate at mmWave frequencies, with its fundamental mode of operation at 180 GHz, and relatively high power levels, up to 600 W. The fundamental mode needs to be extracted from the accelerator at approximately every 0.5 m to prevent the unwanted heating of the accelerator structure. Therefore, the structure is intentionally designed so this fundamental mode does not propagate further, instead it is transmitted through the waveguide assembly under vacuum and out via the vacuum window. As a result of the relatively high mmWave power densities, CVD diamond was chosen as the vacuum window material, due to its low electromagnetic losses, mechanical strength, and for its superior thermo-physical properties. Mechanically it is necessary to be able to hold the tight tolerances necessary for windows performance at millimeter wavelengths. Other mechanical difficulties involve assembly of the window due to CVD diamond material and preservation of ultra high vacuum even if the integrity of the CVD diamond window is somehow compromised.
poster icon Poster TUPB06 [0.386 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 26 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 05 October 2021       issue date ※ 02 November 2021  
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TUPB12 Assessment of the Corrosion of Copper Components in the Water Cooling System of ALBA Synchrotron Light Source; Presentation of a Proposal to Mitigate the Corrosion Rate of Copper cavity, radio-frequency, controls, quadrupole 171
  • M. Quispe, E. Ayas, J.J. Casas, C. Colldelram, Ll. Fuentes, J.C. Giraldo, J. Iglesias, M. Pont
    ALBA-CELLS Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
  • J. Buxadera, M. Punset
    Technical University of Catalonia, The Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering, Barcelona, Spain
  This paper presents the most recent results on the corrosion of copper components in ALBA water cooling system. The studies have been carried out using a variety of techniques: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Representative samples of the Accelerator Facility were examined: Storage Ring Absorbers, Front End Masks, Radio Frequency Cavity Pipes, Experimental Line Mask, Radio Frequency Plant Pipes at Service Area and Booster Quadrupole. The studies show the presence of intergranular, pitting and generalized corrosion. The presence of copper oxide is confirmed, as well as other elements such as Aluminum, Carbon, Sulfur, Silver, Calcium, Silicon, Titanium and Iron in some regions of the samples. Likewise, other elements from circulating water such as Potassium and Chlorine have also been detected. The depth of pitting corrosion is less than 119.4 um for the samples studied, after 10 years of operation. To minimize the corrosion problem, an upgrade of the ALBA cooling system is under study. The objective is to reduce the current corrosion rate by a conservative factor of 5. This change is possible by modifying the characteristics of the cooling water, reducing the dissolved oxygen content to values below 10 ppb and increasing the pH above 7.5. Technical aspects of this upgrade are discussed in this paper.  
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About • paper received ※ 23 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 16 October 2021       issue date ※ 09 November 2021  
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WEOA02 Design of Girders on the New Upgrade Lattice at Soleil alignment, dipole, simulation, lattice 218
  • J.L. Giorgetta, A. Lestrade, A. Mary, K. Tavakoli
    SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  The current girder set of SOLEIL features 4 girder types weighing from 1.85 t to 3 t, with a respective mass payload varying from 4.1 t to 8 t and lengths from 2.40 m to 4.80 m. The smaller size of magnets used for the present version of the SOLEIL upgrade allows a dramatic size and weight reduction of the magnet-girder assemblies. On the other hand, the number of magnets and girders has increased by a factor of 3, implying longer alignment and installation operations. Another constraint is due to the high compactness of the new lattice causing some limitations and access restrictions in the area between girders and tunnel wall. Several setups involving a number of girders from 116 to 212, various magnet layouts and binding systems have been studied. Dynamic and thermal performances have been evaluated by FEA analysis. This approach gives to accelerator physicists the performance of each solution, and thus a great versatility in the choice of the best setup in terms of dynamic and thermal stability. Alignment constraints, installation schedule reducing "dark time" period and economic considerations have also been taken into account during all the design phase.  
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About • paper received ※ 07 August 2021       paper accepted ※ 19 October 2021       issue date ※ 01 November 2021  
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WEPA06 The Beamline Motor Control System of Taiwan Photon Source controls, vacuum, software, experiment 232
  • C.F. Chang, C.Y. Liu
    NSRRC, Hsinchu, Taiwan
  Different experiments have different features, so does the optical design; however, all of them are necessary to be adjusted according to mechanism. For example, adjusting mechanism of optical element is often based on stepper motor, for stepper motor possesses high resolution ability, which can adjust mechanism to precise location. This study illustrates how motor system of our Taiwan Photon Source integrates adjusting mechanisms of stepper motor on beamline. In addition, the firmware of close-loop system is cooperated to further improve veracity of location.  
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About • paper received ※ 05 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 19 October 2021       issue date ※ 27 October 2021  
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WEPB12 ForMAX Endstation - a Novel Design Combining Full-Field Tomography with Small- and Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering detector, vacuum, experiment, scattering 289
  • J.B. González Fernández, S.A. McDonald, K. Nygard, L.K. Roslund
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  Funding: The construction of the ForMAX beamline is funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.
ForMAX is a new beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory for multi-scale structural characterization of hierarchical materials from nm to mm length scales with high temporal resolution. This is achieved by combining full-field microtomography with small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) in a novel manner. The principal components of the endstation consist of two units of beam conditioning elements, a sample table, an evacuated flight tube and a detector gantry. The beam conditioning units include a diamond vacuum window, an attenuator system, a fast shutter, a slit collimation system, two sets of compound refractive lenses, three X-ray beam intensity monitors, a beam viewer and a telescopic vacuum tube. The sample table has been optimized with respect to flexibility and load capacity, while retaining sub-micron resolution of motion and high stability performance. The nine metre long and one metre diameter evacuated flight tube contains a motorised detector trolley, enabling the sample-detector position for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to be easily adjusted under vacuum conditions. Finally, a two metre high and two metre wide granite gantry permits independent and easy movement of the tomography microscope and wide-angle X-ray (WAXS) detector in and out of the X-ray beam. To facilitate propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and mounting of bulky sample environments, the gantry is mounted on motorized floor rails. All these characteristics will allow to combine multiple complementary techniques sequentially in the same experiment with fast efficient switching between setups. The ForMAX endstation is presently in the design and construction phase, with commissioning expected to commence early 2022.
poster icon Poster WEPB12 [1.955 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 16 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 16 October 2021       issue date ※ 30 October 2021  
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WEPB16 CFD Predictions of Water Flow Through Impellers of the ALBA Centrifugal Pumps and Their Aspiration Zone. An Investigation of Fluid Dynamics Effects on Cavitation Problems simulation, experiment, distributed, synchrotron 299
  • A. González Romero
    ESEIAAT, Terrassa, Spain
  • J.J. Casas, C. Colldelram, M. Quispe
    ALBA-CELLS Synchrotron, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
  Currently, the ALBA refrigeration system pumps present cavitation when operating at their nominal regime. To alleviate this phenomenon temporarily until a definitive solution was found, the water flow was reduced to 67% of its nominal value. As this flow exchanges heat with the cooling water produced in an external cogeneration plant, modifying the working point of the pumps resulted in a reduction of the Accelerator cooling capacity. However, even at such low flow conditions, the flow has an anomalous oscillatory behaviour in the distributor of the aspiration zone, implying that the cause may be in a bad dimensioning of the manifold. This paper presents a study of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applied to the aspiration zones of the pumps, to investigate the effects of fluid dynamics on cavitation problems and understand what may be happening in the system. The need for such research arises from the urge to recover the accelerator cooling capacity and the constant pursuit for the improvement of the system. The geometries for this study include the general manifold in the aspiration zone and a simplified model of the pump impeller. The simulations have been carried out with the ANSYS-FLUENT software. Studies performed include considering the total water flow in nominal and under current operating conditions. In addition, the cases in which the flow is distributed through the manifold tubes in uniform and non-uniform ways have been treated separately. Pressure and velocity fields are analysed for various turbulence models. Finally, conclusions and recommendations to the problem are presented.  
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About • paper received ※ 27 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 28 September 2021       issue date ※ 01 November 2021  
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WEPC04 A Compact X-Ray Emission (mini-XES) Spectrometer at CLS - Design and Fabrication Methods alignment, detector, shielding, undulator 314
  • T.W. Wysokinski, M. Button, B. Diaz Moreno, A.F.G. Leontowich
    CLS, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  Funding: The research described in this paper was performed at the Canadian Light Source, which is supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and others agencies.
A compact X-ray emission spectrometer (mini-XES) has been designed and fabricated for use at the Brockhouse undulator beamline*. The mini-XES uses cylindrical von Hamos geometry tuned for Fe K-edge and uses a Pilatus 100 K area detector from Dectris**. It is based on a general design implemented at the APS***. The mini-XES design was developed to be as simple to fabricate and as easy to operate as possible. We tried to minimize the number of components, so there are only two main parts that create a chamber. Those two components are joined and aligned by a NW-80 flange. From the beginning, the design was trying to achieve no tools assembly, alignment, and operation. For lower precision alignment we decided to use the centering ring of the NW-80 flange which, together with two posts integrated with the chamber, provides an adequate method for joining the two parts of the enclosure. We use level vials for horizontal adjustment of the holder for the 10 crystals. For high precision alignment of the holder of the crystal, we used the Thorlab KC1/M kinematic mount, which had the adjustment screws accessible from outside of the chamber. The fabrication was done in-house using uPrint SE Plus 3D Printer****. The first tests of the spectrometer were completed in the Brockhouse wiggler beamline and were successful. Future improvements will aim to reduce the background scatter and better position the detector, to improve the fill. Now that the relatively inexpensive design was tested and tried, there is an option to upgrade it to 3D printed tungsten or steel version that would intrinsically provide the required shielding.
* B. Diaz et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum 85, 085104 (2014)
*** B. A. Mattern et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum 83, 023901 (2012)
poster icon Poster WEPC04 [0.809 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 09 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 17 October 2021       issue date ※ 10 November 2021  
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WEPC12 A New Experimental Station for Liquid Interface X-Ray Scattering At NSLS-II Beamline 12-ID detector, vacuum, experiment, scattering 330
  • D.M. Bacescu, L. Berman, S. Hulbert, B. Ocko, Z. Yin
    BNL, Upton, New York, USA
  Funding: National Synchrotron Light Source II, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated by Brookhaven National Laboratory, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.
Open Platform and Liquids Scattering (OPLS) is a new experimental station recently built and currently being commissioned at the Soft Matter Interfaces (SMI) beamline 12-ID at NSLS-II. The new instrument expands SMI’s beamline scientific capabilities via the addition of X-ray scattering techniques from liquid surfaces and interfaces. The design of this new instrument, located inside the 12-ID beamline shielding enclosure (hutch B), is based on a single Ge (111) crystal deflector, which bounces the incident x-ray beam downward towards a liquid sample which must be maintained in a horizontal orientation (gravity-driven consideration). The OPLS instrument has a variable deflector-to-sample distance ranging from 0.6 m to 1.5 m. X-ray detectors are mounted on a 2-theta scattering arm located downstream of the sample location. The 2-theta arm is designed to hold up to three X-ray detectors, with fixed 2-theta angular offsets, each dedicated to a different X-ray technique such as X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Currently, the OPLS experimental station intercepts the SMI beam that otherwise propagates to the experimental endstation located in hutch C and can be retracted to a ’parking’ position laterally out of this beam to allow installation of a removable beam pipe that is needed to support operations in hutch C. The design of OPLS is flexible enough to quickly adapt to a planned future configuration of the SMI beamline in which a OPLS is illuminated separately from the main SMI branch via a second, canted undulator source and a separate photon delivery system. In this future configuration, both branches will be able to operate independently and simultaneously.
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DOI • reference for this paper ※  
About • paper received ※ 28 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 28 September 2021       issue date ※ 05 November 2021  
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THOB02 Heat Load Simulation of Optic Materials at European XFEL simulation, FEL, photon, synchrotron 357
  • F. Yang, D. La Civita, H. Sinn, M. Vannoni
    EuXFEL, Hamburg, Germany
  The European XFEL GmbH, located in Hamburg area in Germany, is the X-ray free electron laser light source which has been in the operation since 2017. It is designed to provide users high intensity X-ray beam with 27000 pulses/s repetition rate in the photon energy range from 0.5 to 25 keV*. In the beam transport system, the optic components which have direct contact with the beam, e.g. mirror, absorber and beam shutter, etc., could get up to 10 kW heat load on a sub-mm spot in 0.6 ms. Therefore, the thermo-mechanical performance of these optic components is playing an important role in the safety operation of the facility, restricting the maximum allowed beam power delivered to each experiment station. In this contribution, using finite element simulation tools, a parametric study about coupled thermo-mechanical behavior of some general used materials, e.g. CVD diamond, B4C, silicon, etc. is presented. Based on the design of several devices which are already in operation at European XFEL**, an initial damage threshold for these materials is established, with respect to the corresponding beam parameters. Furthermore, the relevant analytical and numerical solutions are discussed and compared, taking the material and geometrical nonlinearities into account. These simulation results can be referred as design and operation benchmark for the optic elements in the beamlines.
*Altarelli, M. et al., The XFEL Technical Design Report, 2006.
**Tschentscher, Th. et al., Photon Beam Transport and Scientific Instruments at the European XFEL, Applied Sciences 7(6):592, 2017.
slides icon Slides THOB02 [1.911 MB]  
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About • paper received ※ 21 July 2021       paper accepted ※ 28 September 2021       issue date ※ 29 October 2021  
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